At a glance
- To process personal data about criminal convictions or offences, you must have both a lawful basis under Article 6 and either legal authority or official authority for the processing under Article 10.
- The Data Protection Bill deals with this type of data in a similar way to special category data, and sets out specific conditions providing lawful authority for processing it.
- You can also process this type of data if you have official authority to do so because you are processing the data in an official capacity.
- You cannot keep a comprehensive register of criminal convictions unless you do so in an official capacity.
- You must determine your condition for lawful processing of offence data (or identify your official authority for the processing) before you begin the processing, and you should document this.
The GDPR rules for sensitive (special category) data do not apply to information about criminal allegations, proceedings or convictions. Instead, there are separate safeguards for personal data relating to criminal convictions and offences, or related security measures, set out in Article 10.
Article 10 also specifies that you can only keep a comprehensive register of criminal convictions if you are doing so under the control of official authority.
What is criminal offence data?
Article 10 applies to personal data relating to criminal convictions and offences, or related security measures. In this guidance, we refer to this as criminal offence data.
This concept of criminal offence data includes the type of data about criminal allegations, proceedings or convictions that would have been sensitive personal data under the 1998 Act. However, it is potentially broader than this. In particular, Article 10 specifically extends to personal data linked to related security measures.
What’s different about criminal offence data?
You must still have a lawful basis for your processing under Article 6, in exactly the same way as for any other personal data. The difference is that if you are processing personal criminal offence data, you will also need to comply with Article 10.
What does Article 10 say?
Article 10 says:“Processing of personal data relating to criminal convictions and offences or related security measures based on Article 6(1) shall be carried out only under the control of official authority or when the processing is authorised by Union or Member State law providing for appropriate safeguards for the rights and freedoms of data subjects. Any comprehensive register of criminal convictions shall be kept only under the control of official authority.”
This means you must either be processing the data in an official capacity, or have specific legal authorisation – which in the UK, is likely to mean a condition under the Data Protection Bill and compliance with the additional safeguards set out in the Bill. We will publish more detailed guidance on the conditions in the Bill once these provisions are finalised.
Even if you have a condition for processing offence data, you can only keep a comprehensive register of criminal convictions if you are doing so in an official capacity.
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